How to write a brilliant chapter of nuclear energy

2022-08-09
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How can China write a brilliant chapter in the utilization of nuclear energy in the past 40 years

Zhejiang Qinshan nuclear power station is the first 300000 kW pressurized water reactor nuclear power station designed, built and operated by China. Qinshan nuclear power base currently has 9 units, which is the nuclear power base with the largest number of nuclear power units, the richest reactor types and the largest installed capacity in China

Taishan nuclear power station

Guangdong Taishan nuclear power station plans to build 6 nuclear power units, introduce EPR (European advanced pressurized water reactor) technology in phase I, and build 2 nuclear power units with a single unit capacity of 1.75 million KW. On June 29th, 2018, unit 1 merged and became the world's first EPR third-generation nuclear power unit to generate electricity

Sanmen Nuclear Power Station

Zhejiang Sanmen Nuclear Power Station took the lead in adopting the third-generation advanced pressurized water reactor (AP1000) technology in the world. Two AP1000 units were built in phase I. on June 30, 2018, unit 1 was merged for the first time, becoming the world's first AP1000 third-generation nuclear power unit to generate electricity

Yangjiang Nuclear Power Station

Guangdong Yangjiang nuclear power station has continuously built 6 million KW nuclear power units, which is currently the nuclear power project with the largest number of units approved at one time and the largest scale in China

Tianwan Nuclear Power Station

Jiangsu Tianwan nuclear power station plans to build 8 million KW nuclear power units. Russian AES-91 nuclear power units are used in phase I Project No. 1 and 2 and phase II Project No. 3 and 4. Units 5 and 6 of phase III project adopt m310+ improved models and are planned to be put into commercial operation before the end of 2021

China's nuclear industry was founded and developed under the cordial care of several generations of central collective leaders. From 1955 to the time of reform and opening up, relying on our own strength and the strong coordination of the people of the whole country, we successfully developed atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs and nuclear submarines, broke the monopoly of nuclear powers, fundamentally improved China's national defense strength, provided an important guarantee for national security, greatly inspired the aspirations of the Chinese people, and made historic contributions to the improvement of China's international status

after the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, with the shift of the focus of the work of the whole party, the central government made strategic adjustments to the nuclear industry, from focusing on the military to combining the military and the people, and promoted the nuclear industry to be invested in the main battlefield of national economic construction. Over the past 40 years, 1. It has been mostly used in the aerospace field of high technology. We have resolutely implemented the deployment of the Central Committee, adhered to safe development, innovative development, and military civilian integration development, wrote a new chapter in the reform and opening up of the nuclear industry, opened up a new situation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and made remarkable achievements

As early as 1970, Premier Zhou Enlai proposed that in the long run, to solve the power consumption problem in Shanghai and East China, we should rely on nuclear power. However, the actual start of nuclear power in China was in the 1980s after the reform and opening up. Under the cordial care and leadership of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the Qinshan 300000 kW pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant independently designed and built by China was started in 1985 and combined with power generation in 1991, realizing the "zero" breakthrough of nuclear power in mainland China, which is known as "the glory of the country"; As the first large-scale commercial nuclear power plant in China, the Sino French cooperative Daya Bay megawatt pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant, which began construction in 1987, has created a new way to use foreign capital to build large-scale energy infrastructure projects. The successful construction of Qinshan and Daya Bay nuclear power stations has laid a good foundation for the development of nuclear power in China. After more than 30 years of efforts, China's nuclear power has grown from scratch, from small to large, from moderate and active development to safe and efficient development, and has achieved fruitful results, and has ranked among the world's major nuclear power countries

as of July 31, 2018, the mainland of China has 39 nuclear power units in operation, with an installed capacity of 38.02 million KW, ranking fourth in the world; In 2017, nuclear power generation was 247.469 billion kwh, ranking third in the world; There are 18 nuclear power units under construction, with an installed capacity of 20.65 million KW, which has been the first in the world for many years. China's nuclear power has always maintained a good operation record, and there has never been an operation event of class II or above of the international nuclear event classification (ines). Compared with the performance indicators specified by the World Association of nuclear power operators (WANO), among the more than 400 operating units in the world, 80% of the indicators of China's operating units are better than the median level, 70% reach the advanced value, which is equivalent to the level of nuclear power units in the United States, and the overall safety indicators are improving year by year

realize the leap from "second generation" to "third generation" technology

the development of nuclear power in China started relatively late. Through independent innovation and introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation, China has quickly mastered the world's advanced nuclear power technology, and has been successfully applied to independent design, independent manufacturing, independent construction and independent operation of nuclear power. On the basis of the introduction of French M310 technology in the 1980s, through continuous technical improvement, the second generation improved reactor types of CPR1000 and cp1000 have been successfully developed, and the batch construction has been realized, which has made an important contribution to the rapid development of nuclear power in China. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we fully learned from the advanced concepts of the international third-generation nuclear power technology and the experience feedback of the Fukushima nuclear accident. On the basis of the acp1000 and acpr1000 models developed by China Nuclear Power Group and China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group, we independently developed the "hualong-1" technology that meets the highest international safety standards. At present, the construction has been started in Fuqing, Fujian and Fangcheng port, Guangxi, and the project is progressing smoothly

in 2006, China decided to introduce AP1000 technology from Westinghouse to build the third generation nuclear power plant, and included "large advanced pressurized water reactor and high temperature gas cooled reactor nuclear power plant" in the major national science and technology projects. With the special support and drive, China has fully mastered the third-generation passive nuclear power technology, independently overcome the high-temperature gas cooled reactor technology with the characteristics of the fourth generation, and significantly improved its independent innovation ability. As an independent third-generation cap1400 nuclear power project supported by major national science and technology projects, through introduction, digestion, absorption and re innovation, model research and development and engineering design have been completed, and the construction conditions have been met. With the commencement of the construction of "hualong-1" and the availability of cap1400, China has become a country with independent third-generation nuclear power technology. In terms of the scale of construction in progress and development prospects, China has become the center of the development of three generations of nuclear power in the world. It has a relatively broad market space at home and abroad, and has the conditions to move forward from a "nuclear power power power" to a "nuclear power power power"

establish a complete nuclear power industry chain

after more than 30 years of uninterrupted development, China has become another country with independent three generation nuclear power technology and the whole industry chain, following the United States, France and Russia. In terms of nuclear fuel supply, major breakthroughs have been made in the geological exploration of uranium deposits in the in-situ leachable sandstone basins in northern China, and a number of large and extra large uranium deposits have been discovered and explored. The pace of transformation and upgrading of the natural uranium industry accelerated, and the first 1000 ton green uranium mine base in Yili, Xinjiang, was officially put into operation. The production capacity of uranium purification and conversion, uranium enrichment, pressurized water reactor nuclear fuel assemblies has been greatly improved, the world's first high temperature gas cooled reactor nuclear fuel production line has achieved large-scale production, and China's first AP1000 element production line has officially entered the production stage. The CF3 independent fuel element number using N36 cladding material is MWD ⑴ 03: significant progress has been made in the research and development of microcomputer controlled (fully automatic) wood-based panel universal experimental parts, The thermal commissioning of the intermediate test project of spent fuel reprocessing was a complete success. At present, China's nuclear fuel production capacity has ranked first in the world, which can meet the domestic nuclear power and nuclear power "going out" demand for various types of fuel

by digesting and absorbing foreign advanced technology and vigorously promoting independent innovation, China has made major breakthroughs in the localization and localization of key nuclear power equipment and materials, mastered the core technology for the design and manufacturing of key equipment in nuclear and conventional islands, developed and expanded a number of equipment and parts production enterprises supporting nuclear power, and formed a manufacturing capacity of 8 to 10 sets of nuclear power main equipment each year, with optional micro printers The localization rate of key equipment and materials of megawatt third-generation nuclear power units has reached more than 85%. China's nuclear power project management autonomy and general contracting capacity continue to improve, and has a comprehensive grasp of the pressurized water reactor, heavy water reactor, high temperature gas cooled reactor, fast reactor and other reactor types, 300000, 600000, 1million, 1.7 million KW and other nuclear power construction technologies with different powers, and has the ability to start the construction of more than 30 nuclear power units at the same time

build a "national business card" of high-tech industry

not long after Qinshan nuclear power plant and power generation, China signed a contract with Pakistan to export 300000 kW nuclear power plants to Pakistan. From the commencement of the construction of unit 1 of Chashma nuclear power station in Pakistan on August 1, 1993 to the completion of unit 4 on September 8, 2017, four pressurized water reactor units of Chashma nuclear power phase I project have been fully completed, with a total installed capacity of more than 1.3 million KW, which has taken an important step for China's nuclear power "going global". With the large-scale development of nuclear power in China, the "going global" of nuclear power has become a national strategy. During their visits, national leaders have repeatedly introduced nuclear power to the world as the business card of China's high-tech industry

driven by the "going global" strategy of nuclear power and the "the Belt and Road" initiative, China's international cooperation in nuclear power has been advancing steadily. The K2 and K3 projects in Karachi, Pakistan, using the "hualong-1" technology, started construction in 2015 and 2016. Among them, the K2 project successfully achieved dome hoisting in October 2017, and has fully entered the installation stage. In November of the same year, CNNC signed a business contract with Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission for Chashma nuclear power unit 5, which is the third nuclear power unit of China's "hualong-1" successfully "going global", and also the seventh nuclear power unit exported to Pakistan. In September 2016, CGNPC and EDF signed a package cooperation agreement on the new nuclear power project in the UK, and the British Hinkley point C project, which was jointly invested and constructed by China and France, was substantially launched; The universal design review (GDA) of "hualong-1" in the UK has been accepted by the British government and has officially entered the second stage; Bradwell B project, which plans to adopt "hualong-1" technology, has entered the stage of plant site exploration. State Power Investment Group has cooperated with Westinghouse to jointly develop Turkey's third nuclear power project using ap1000/cap1400 technology, and has signed a project feasibility study memorandum

In addition, China has signed relevant agreements with Argentina, Romania, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iran, Czech Republic, Brazil, Bulgaria, Spain, Indonesia, Thailand and other countries to actively promote cooperation in nuclear power and related fields

the 19th CPC National Congress took energy development as an important part of the construction of ecological civilization, emphasized the need to promote green development, expand the clean energy industry, promote the revolution of energy production and consumption, and build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system, which put forward new and higher requirements for the development of nuclear energy in the new era. The national "13th five year plan" puts forward the goals of 58million kW in operation and 30million kW in construction for the development of nuclear power in 2020. China's nuclear energy industry is facing both rare historical opportunities and severe challenges. We should adhere to safe and innovative development, comprehensively enhance the core competitiveness of the nuclear energy industry, and continue to write a new brilliant chapter in China's nuclear energy industry

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